car origin :
| Porsche Car history
Taken from Porsche Official "Press Kit"
From the 356 to the New 911
While products and technologies designed and created by Porsche now look
back at more than 100 years of successful history, the first car bearing
the brand name Porsche was homologated by the state government of Kärnten
in Austria "only" 50 years ago on 8 June 1948 the very first
Porsche 356 to see the light of day. The intellectual and, indeed,
spiritual "father" of the car was Professor Ferdinand
"Ferry" Porsche, who died on 27 March 1998 at the age of 88.
Moving his Company during the war from Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen to the town
of Gmünd in Kärnten, Ferry Porsche had started with his faithful
employees in 1947 to "build a sports car of the kind I like
myself" based on the Volkswagen Beetle developed by his father.
Without counting "Old No 1", exactly 52 units of the 356 model
were built in Gmünd, all subsequent cars as of 1950 being assembled in
Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen. Up to the end of production of the 356 in 1965 no
less than 78,000 purchasers the world over had joined Ferry Porsche in his
opinion, clearly expressing that they, too, liked the car. Other sports
cars in particular, of course, the 911 quickly made the brand one
of the most renowned and outstanding automobile manufacturers in the world
consistently renowned for beautiful design, progressive and reliable
Porsche's worldwide success in motorsport also started with the 356. For
the very first model with chassis number 356.001 was only a few weeks old
when, in July 1948, it scored its first class victory in the Innsbruck
City Race. And to this very day hardly any other marque has brought home
as many overall wins and world championships as Porsche. In the 24 Hours
of Le Mans alone, now the oldest and most famous long-distance race in the
world, Porsche has clinched victory no less than 15 times. In Formula 1,
in turn, the world championship engine has come from Porsche on no less
than three occasions.
Many of the winning cars are based on the Porsche 911 and its
technology. Like the VW Beetle beating production records the world over,
the Porsche 911 presented to the public in 1963 now looks back at a longer
life-cycle than any other sports car in the world. And even today, demand
for the latest 911 with its water-cooled six-cylinder horizontally opposed
power unit fitted at the rear exceeds all expectations. Which explains why
Porsche aficionados already speak of the "never-ending story"
(and success) of the 911.
Porsche's Research and Development Centre in Weissach, 25 kilometres
west of Stuttgart, is of equally great significance in the automobile
world as Porsche's sports cars from Zuffenhausen. The Weissach Centre
continues the tradition initiated by Professor Ferdinand Porsche, the
father of Ferry Porsche, at his original Design Office in Stuttgart,
developing not only the sports cars of the marque, but also technical
projects and new technologies for customers the world over. Indeed, no
other manufacturer these days is able to offer such a complete, all-round
range of development services extending from detailed solutions all the
way to complete vehicles. The main customers of Porsche's Development
Centre with more than 1,850 engineers and technicians are international
automotive manufacturers proud and readily willing to admit that
"there is a piece of Weissach in every car on the road".
The History of Porsche Sports Cars
Motoring at Its Very Best
The very first car proudly bearing the name Porsche was built 50 years
ago a 356 roadster with chassis number 356.001. With its modified
1.1-litre VW engine developing 35 bhp at 4000 rpm, the car had a top speed
of 135 km/h or 84 mph. Prior to the construction of this first-ever
Porsche, the Company had worked exclusively as a design service handling
assignments from other manufacturers, the most famous example, of course,
being the Volkswagen Beetle.
"Every single bolt was just right"
During the war Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche (who died on 27 March
1998 at the age of 88) and a handful of his proven, faithful employees had
started work on development number 356 in their workshops moved to the
town of Gmünd in Kärnten. The first design drawings were completed on 17
July 1947 and on 8 June 1948 the Kärnten state government issued a
special permit homologating the car. Returning home after being held by
the French as a prisoner of war and bailed out of custody by his family,
Professor Dr.-Ing.h.c.Ferdinand Porsche, Ferry's father, stated right away
that "every single bolt was just right". No 1 was then followed
by a small series of 52 additional cars built in Gmünd, production in
Stuttgart from 1950 1965 subsequently amounting to 78,000 units of the
356 model series.
Then, at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show, the story of Porsche was
continued with the world-famous 911.
The 911: the sports car with the longest production run ever
"We had to move on from the 356", said Ferry Porsche,
"because basically we had started building the car with VW parts and
components". Despite ongoing evolution of the 356 and the addition of
various engines extending up to 2.0 litres and 130 bhp on the road models,
Porsche's very first sports car had its limits. So Ferry's son Ferdinand
Alexander Porsche designed the successor to the 356, the Porsche 911,
originally bearing the model designation 901. The four-cylinder engine was
replaced in the process by an all-new six-cylinder offering a huge
potential for further improvement. Initially, this new flat-six displaced
2.0 litres and developed maximum output of 130 bhp, giving the car a top
speed of more than 210 km/h or 130 mph. Even back then one of the car's
technical details was the safety steering system allowing the engineers to
"kill three birds with one stone": Fitted just above the floor
panel, the steering transmission left more room for luggage beneath the
sloped engine compartment lid, the arrangement of the steering spindle in
the middle of the car facilitated the production of left-hand and
right-hand-drive models, and the steering column folding if necessary at
two points protected the driver reliably in the event of a head-on
Like the Volkswagen Beetle built in huge numbers, the Porsche 911 now
looks back at the longest production run of any sports car in the world. A
particular highlight in the 911 model range was the 911 Turbo presented by
Porsche at the 1974 Paris Motor Show and originally intended for a
production "volume" of just 500 units. By the time the last
air-cooled 911 was delivered to its proud owner on 31 March 1998, however,
Porsche had built and sold no less then 32,335 Turbos for customers the
914/914-6: the mid-engined Porsche
Over and above decades of development activities for Volkswagen, Porsche
started cooperating even more closely with VW when Ferry Porsche decided
to introduce a sports car below the 911 price range. With the engineers in
both Wolfsburg and Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen being convinced that the
mid-engine concept was the right approach, the Porsche 914 saw the light
of day in 1969 as a mid-engined sports car with a removable roof and a
four-cylinder injection engine displacing 1.7 litres supplied by VW and
then followed by the two-litre six-cylinder taken from the 911 T to create
the Porsche 914-6. With the engine of the 911 T at the time developing 125
bhp and marking the entry level into the 911 model series, the power unit
featured in the 914-6 developed maximum output of 110 bhp.
924: introducing the Transaxle era
Another product of Porsche's close cooperation with VW was the Porsche
924 originally developed for Volkswagen but then becoming a fully-fledged
Porsche in 1975. The first-ever Porsche with Transaxle configuration, a
water-cooled engine fitted up front and the transmission on the rear axle,
the 924, together with its successors, the Porsche 944 and 968, saw a
total production run throughout a period of 20 years of 325,231 units
equal to approximately 30 per cent of Porsche's total output.
928: the top-of-the-range gran turismo
The only sports car ever to win the title of Car of the Year was
built in Zuffenhausen from 1977 to 1995: the Porsche 928 gran turismo
which, leaving aside the 911 Turbo, consistently remained the most
expensive production Porsche to be admired on the road. Sold to
approximately 61,000 purchasers the world over, the Porsche 928 already
came with an all-aluminium power unit at a time when most car
manufacturers still used heavy grey-cast-iron engines. Maximum output back
in 1977 was 240 bhp from 4.5 litres, the last version, the 928 GTS,
developing 350 bhp from 5.4 litres and accelerating, thanks to its
enormous torque of 500 Nm (369 lb-ft), to 100 km/h in just 5.7 seconds.
Top speed was a very impressive 275 km/h or 171 mph, clearly proving the
enormous power and performance reserves of this thoroughbred gran turismo.
Secure roadholding even in tight bends and optimum directional stability
under load change were ensured by the rear-wheel suspension developed
especially for the 928, a suspension which soon gained world fame as the Weissach
axle. So long before other manufacturers started to think about
"four-wheel steering", Porsche's engineers anticipated this
technology back in the '70s by introducing a mechanical solution without
any sensitive electronic gadgetry.
Porsche Boxster: the perfect roadster
Since September 1996 the Porsche Boxster, combining the driving dynamics
of a thoroughbred sports car with unlimited everyday driving qualities,
has offered a new performance and safety standard in the open sports car
market. Featuring a novel roof opening/closing mechanism, the electric
roof of the Boxster opens and closes within just 12 seconds, that is at a
speed and with a degree of efficiency never seen before.
The Boxster stands out from its keenest competitors through its
mid-engine concept with a flat-six power unit typical of Porsche (2.5
litres, 204 bhp/150 kW) an engine which even under practical driving
conditions makes do with less than 10 litres of premium plus/100 km (which
means it returns fuel consumption better than 28.2 mpg Imp). And thanks to
a drag coefficient (Cd) of just 0.31, the Boxster is able to achieve a top
speed of 240 km/h or 149 mph which, together with acceleration to 100 km/h
in 6.9 seconds, makes it the leader in its class.
Porsche 911: a never-ending story of success
In autumn 1997 a water-cooled six-cylinder horizontally-opposed power
unit in the 911 replaced its air-cooled predecessor after no less than 34
years in the market. Smaller in size (3.4 litres), the new engine in the
Porsche 911 is more powerful, offers even better performance, but is also
more fuel-efficient and compatible with the environment. Maximum output is
300 bhp or 221 kW at 6800 rpm, maximum torque 350 Nm or 258 lb-ft at 4600
rpm. With emissions being reduced to a minimum, the new 911 outperforms
even the strictest Euro standard. And the car's noise level also remains
below the standards to be applied in future, although it is of course
still characterised by that unique "911 sound".
In its design for the 21st century, the Porsche 911 nevertheless remains
faithful to the Company's traditional line. But it is clearly
distinguishable as a new model since, while retaining that typical 911
silhouette, Porsche's designers have streamlined and smoothened the body
throughout, significantly improving the car's aerodynamic coefficient in
the process, the Cd factor dropping from 0.33 to 0.30.
Customers the world over have unanimously applauded the work done by the
engineers and designers at Porsche's Development Centre in Weissach,
demand for the new car exceeding even the greatest expectations. And
demand has increased to an even higher level with the introduction of the
new 911 cabriolet, aficionados of Porsche sports cars already waxing
lyrical about the "never-ending story" of the 911.
Models, Facts and Figures
- Porsche No 1, a mid-engined roadster, is completed and homologated in the
Austrian town of Gmünd. The engine displaces 1131 cc and develops maximum
output of 35 bhp (26 kW). The first few 356 coupés are made of light alloy.
- Production of the first Porsche 356 cabriolets.
- Start of production in Stuttgart.
- The Porsche 1300 (1286 cc, 44 bhp/32 kW) and 1500 (1488 cc, 60 bhp/44 kW)
join the range, the latter quickly becoming a best seller.
- Launch of the Porsche 1500 S (1488 cc, 70 bhp/51 kW).
- Yet another new model joins the range: the Porsche 1300 S (1290 cc, 60
- Production of the first 200 Porsche Speedsters.
- The Speedster becomes a genuine sales success. Production of the 356 A
series starts in autumn with the proven 1300 and 1300 S power units soon
joined by the 1600 (1582 cc, 60 bhp/44 kW), 1600 S (1582 cc, 75 bhp/55 kW)
and 1500 GS the first Carrera marking the introduction of the new sports
engine with four overhead camshafts (1498 cc, 100 bhp/74 kW). The
1100-cc engines are dropped from the range.
- No changes within Porsche's model range.
- The sporting and spartan Porsche 1500 GS Carrera is joined by the more
comfortable 1500 GS de Luxe model.
- Output of the Porsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT is boosted to 110 bhp/81
kW. The Speedster is replaced by the Convertible D with a larger windscreen
and winding windows at the side. The 1300-cc engines are dropped from the
- The Carrera receives extra power and is now called the 1600 GS-GT, with
the sports version offering more output (1588 cc, 115 bhp/85 kW) than the de
Luxe model (105 bhp/77 kW). The 356 B series is introduced in autumn, the
Convertible D being re-named the Roadster.
- The Porsche Super 90 (with a special balance spring on the rear axle)
joins the range (1582 cc, 90 bhp/66 kW).
- Karmann, the specialist coachbuilder, builds the hardtop coupe on behalf
of Porsche. The roof is not removable, the silhouette of the car has a
slight notchback look.
- The Porsche 356 is introduced in autumn. Disc brakes are now standard on
all models, with disc brakes on all four wheels being the most significant
- The two "standard" models in the range are the 1600 C (75 bhp/55
kW) and 1600 SC (95 bhp/70 kW). The new top model is the Carrera 2 (1966 cc,
130 bhp/96 kW) featuring inner-grip brake callipers on the brake discs.
- The Porsche 911 makes its appearance in the market. The first version of
the new six-cylinder boxer engine offers the same output as the Carrera 2
(1991 cc, 130 bhp/96 kW).
- Start-up of Porsche 911 production. The 356 C is selling better than ever
- The new model series is rounded off at the lower end by the 912 with its
flat-four power unit (1582 cc, 90 bhp/66 kW) quickly becoming a best seller.
Production of the 356 ends in April.
- The Porsche Targa complete with roll-bar enters the range in autumn as the
new open-air model. The 911 S is introduced with an even more powerful
engine (160 bhp/118 kW). By the end of the year the 912 is out-selling the
- The 911 T joins the six-cylinder model series with leaner trim and a less
powerful engine (110 bhp/81 kW), selling at a very attractive price of less
than DM 20,000.-. US exports increase rapidly.
- Wheelbase of the 911 is extended by 57 mm or 2.24". To comply with US
emission standards, the six-cylinder power units feature Bosch mechanical
fuel injection for the first time. The 911 E (140 bhp/103 kW) is launched
into the market, output of the 911 S is boosted by 10 bhp to 170 bhp. The
911 T still using carburettor technology develops maximum output of 110
- To name only the most important innovations, the 911 receives a larger
2195-cc power unit for the 1970 model year, introducing a new power and
performance league: 911 T (125 bhp/92 kW), 911 E (155 bhp/114 kW), 911 S
(180 bhp/133 kW). Semi-automatic Sportomatic is available as an option. The
Porsche 912 is replaced by the two-seater mid-engine VW Porsche 914
available in two versions: as the 914/4 with a four-cylinder Volkswagen
engine (1679 cc, 80 bhp/59 kW) and as the 914/6 with a six-cylinder Porsche
power unit (1991 cc, 110 bhp/81 kW). Particularly the low-priced four
cylinder becomes a genuine success.
- A year of consolidation without any significant innovations. Sales of both
model series remain positive.
- Now power play is really the name of the game: Starting in September, the
six-cylinder featured in the 911 grows once again, displacing 2341 cc and
introducing a new power and performance league once again: 911 T (130 bhp/96
kW), 911 E (165 bhp/121 kW), 911 S (190 bhp/140 kW). Porsche also puts on
the pressure with its "small" model, building 11 916 sports cars
featuring the ultra-powerful six-cylinder (2341 cc, 190 bhp/140 kW),
following the two 914/8 models with an 8-cylinder racing engine already
built two years before (2997 cc, but varying in power: 260 bhp/191 kW and
300 bhp/221 kW). The 260-bhp 914/8 goes to Professor Ferry Porsche for his
- The Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 (2687 cc, 210 bhp/154 kW) and the Porsche
2.8 Carrera RSR (2806 cc, 300 bhp/ 221 kW) pave the way for further growth.
Destined mainly for motor racing, these new models introduce a clearly
visible aerodynamic body feature for the first time: the ducktail rear
spoiler on the engine compartment lid. The Porsche 914 receives extra power,
now featuring a larger four-cylinder from VW (1971 cc, 100 bhp/74 kW)
helping the "small" Porsche to remain a genuine best seller.
- Following the plant shut-down in summer the new model range reveals
significant modifications in body design, the bumpers now complying with US
regulations and featuring impact absorbers at either side. The 2.7-litre
power unit (210 bhp/154 kW) is introduced as standard in the Porsche 911.
New models are the Carrera RS 3.0 sports version (2994 cc, 230 bhp/168 kW)
and the Carrera RSR 3.0 (2994 cc, 330 bhp/241 kW) featuring a large rear
wing and flared wheel arches with special air intakes.
- Within the 914 series a 1.8-litre version (1795 cc, 85 bhp/63 kW) replaces
the former 1.7-litre engine.
- In autumn the first Porsche Turbo code-named the 930 (2994 cc, 260 bhp/191
kW) sees the light of day, providing the foundation for various racing
models code-named the 935 in the years to follow, with maximum output up to
850 bhp. The 911 is available in three versions with the same 2687-cc
displacement engine but different levels of power: 911 (150 bhp/110 kW), 911
S (175 bhp/129 kW) and the Carrera (210 bhp/154 kW). The sales split is
almost exactly 50:50.
- The Porsche 911 enters the 1976 model year with only very minor
modifications. Output of the "basic" version is boosted to 165
bhp/121 kW, the 911 S is dropped from the range. The Carrera 3.0 (2994 cc,
200 bhp/147 kW) is dropped after the plant shut-down in summer. In their
last year of production, all models in the Porsche 914 range receive a
two-litre power unit, with a reduction in compression and output to 95
bhp/70 kW. In autumn the 912 E (available only in the USA) also featuring a
VW power unit (1971 cc, 90 bhp/66 kW) joins the 914 in the market.
- Porsche's new entry-level model is the 924, the first-ever Porsche with a
water-cooled engine fitted up front an engine supplied by Audi (1984 cc,
125 bhp/92 kW). The 911 model range continues with a 2.7-litre power unit as
well as the 3.0-litre in the Carrera, output remaining unchanged in both
cases. The bodyshell hot-galvanised on both sides significantly extends the
life-cycle of all Porsche models as of the 1976 model year.
- The Porsche 928 launched in autumn 1977 is the new top model conceived as
the successor to the 911. Its V8 power unit boasts American dimensions (4474
cc, 240 bhp/177 kW). Starting in autumn, all models in the 911 range receive
the 3.0-litre engine with the same output (180 bhp/132 kW) no longer
comparable to the former performance figures due to the new emission
standards in the market. The Turbo engine becomes larger and even more
powerful (3299 cc, 300 bhp/221 kW). Sales of the 924 remain at a good level,
the 911 is a stable performer as before, and demand for the Turbo as well as
the 928 continues to develop positively. From now on the 911 bears the model
name "Porsche 911 SC".
- The 928 becomes the first and so far only sports car in the world to be
voted Car of the Year.
- Output of the 911 increases slightly to 188 bhp/138 kW. The 924 Turbo also
comes close to this figure, at 170 bhp/125 kW. With its technical features
remaining unchanged, the 928 sees an increase in production and sales, the
924 remaining Porsche's best seller.
- The Porsche 924 Carrera GT (210 bhp/154 kW) offers even more power than
the 911, the 911 SC now featuring a 204 bhp/150 kW engine. The 928 remains
unchanged, but is joined by the 928 S developing maximum output of 300
bhp/221 kW from 4664 cc.
- On goes the trend to even more power and performance, the 924 Turbo now
featuring a 177 bhp/130 kW power unit. The 911 Turbo remains unchanged. At
the Frankfurt Motor Show Porsche presents a concept Turbo Cabriolet (with
- Porsche extends the range by introducing the 944 based on the 924 but
featuring even wider wheel arches and a four-cylinder Porsche engine (2479
cc, 163 bhp/120 kW) basically speaking half the 8-cylinder in the 928.
The new model has a clear effect on sales of the 924, which start to go down
for the first time.
- After almost 20 years Porsche returns to a real convertible, the 911 SC
Cabriolet becoming a best seller right from the start. Output of the 928 S
is increased moderately to 310 bhp/228 kW.
- The 1984 model year launched in September 1983 once again introduces the
911 Carrera with an even larger engine (3164 cc, 231 bhp/170 kW). The
Company's success curve points upwards, the 924 and 944 remaining the
best-selling models. The 928 S becomes even more powerful, all 911 Carrera
models are now also available in Turbo look.
- The year of the ultimate Porsche, the high-tech 959 featuring a four-valve
boxer engine, water-cooled cylinder heads, four-wheel drive, awe-inspiring
performance figures (2850 cc, 450 bhp/331 kW) and a price tag of DM
420,000.-. Production of the 959 in the years to come exceeds the 200 mark.
The Porsche 928 features an even larger engine for the USA and Japan, with
output closer to the European model (4957 cc, 292 bhp/215 kW). The Porsche
four-cylinder in the 944 now offers even more power thanks to turbocharging
(2479 cc, 220 bhp/162 kW), both the 924 and the 944 remaining on the
best-selling list. Without any significant modifications the Porsche 911
achieves its best annual result, just as the 928 S shows good year-round
figures even without any significant innovations. The 924 matures into the
924 S now featuring Porsche's four-cylinder power unit (2479 cc, 150 bhp/110
- The four-valve Porsche 928 S4 goes into production with an increase in
engine size and power (4957 cc, 320 bhp/ 235 kW). The new range consists of
the 924 S/944 (2457 cc, 150 bhp/110 kW), the 944 S (2457 cc, 190 bhp/140 kW)
and the 944 Turbo (2457 cc, 220 bhp/162 kW). The 911 Turbo is also available
in both Targa and Cabriolet guise.
- Output of the 924 S/944 models increases to 160 bhp/118 kW. The 944 Turbo
S (2479 cc, 250 bhp/184 kW) rounds off the small model series, the Porsche
928 S4 remains in production without any significant changes.
- The new generation of the 911 comes with the in-house code designation
964. Introduction of the new model starts with the 911 Carrera 4 featuring
four-wheel drive. The 964 series is available first as a coupé, its
six-cylinder boxer engine featuring double ignition, plus extra size and
power (3600 cc, 250 bhp/ 184 kW). The old series remains in production with
the 911 Speedster, strictly a two-seater with an extra-small windscreen. The
Porsche 944 comes with a larger engine (2681 cc) and more power (165 bhp/121
kW) and is joined by the 944 Turbo (250 bhp/184 kW). The four-valve power
unit of the 944 is increased in size and output to 2990 cc, 211 bhp/155 kW.
The 944 S2 is available as both a coupé and cabriolet, the 944 Turbo
receives an all-new five-speed gearbox.
- The 911 is now available with rear-wheel drive as the Carrera 2 coming
both as a Targa and Cabriolet. Tiptronic is introduced at the same time,
automatic transmission with a torque converter and four gears also allowing
a sequential gearshift by means of the selector lever. The large model
series is rounded off as of spring 1989 by the 928 GT with even more power
(330 bhp/243 kW). The 911 Turbo is dropped from the range, production
ceasing in autumn 1989.
- The new 911 Turbo enters the market in September with a 3299 cc power unit
and a slight increase in power (320 bhp/235 kW).
- The Porsche 968 based in its design on the 928 replaces the 944. Output of
the three-litre power unit is boosted to 240 bhp/176 kW. The 8-cylinder
power unit of the Porsche 928 now featured in the GTS increases in both size
and output (5397 cc, 350 bhp/257 kW), just as the 911 Carrera RS competition
model also offers a slight boost in power (260 bhp/191 kW).
- The Porsche 911 Turbo comes with an even larger engine displacing 3600 cc
and developing 360 bhp/265 kW. The 968 is introduced in two-seater Clubsport
trim with leaned-down equipment and a lower price.
- Towards the middle of the year Porsche presents the thoroughly modified
911 code-named the 993 within the Company and featuring an even more
streamlined body, the new multi-link rear axle and a choice of either
six-speed manual gearbox or four-speed Tiptronic. Engine capacity remains
unchanged, output increases even further (3600 cc, 272 bhp/200 kW). The new
993 is built initially as the Carrera coupé with rear-wheel drive.
- The new Carrera 4 enters production featuring a new drive concept with
power transmitted to the wheels via a viscous coupling. As the "basic
model" for racing Porsche builds the 911 Carrera RS with an extra-light
body, a larger, fixed-position rear spoiler and a more powerful engine (3746
cc, 300 bhp/221 kW). In spring 1994 Porsche ceases production of the 993
- The new 911 Turbo displaces 3600 cc and develops maximum output of 408
bhp/300 kW. It also features the four-wheel-drive concept of the Carrera 4.
The even more dynamic GT2 version of the Turbo, in turn, comes exclusively
with rear-wheel drive and offers even more power (430 bhp/316 kW). In
September the 911 Carrera also receives extra power (285 bhp/210 kW), and at
the same time a new Porsche Targa with a sliding glass roof enters
- Public launch of the Boxster at the 1996 Paris Motor Show. A mid-engined
roadster, the Boxster reveals Porsche's new generation of power units with
very convincing facts and figures (2480 cc, 204 bhp/150 kW). Six
water-cooled cylinders in horizontally opposed arrangement, four overhead
camshafts with VarioCam, four valves per cylinder and integrated dry sump
lubrication are the technical highlights.
- Porsche presents an all-new 911 with slightly larger body dimensions but
still in the same classic style as its predecessor plus further improved
suspension and a more powerful version of the new water-cooled boxer engine
(3387 cc, 300 bhp/221 kW). The Porsche Carrera 4S, Targa and Porsche 911
Turbo remain in production unchanged until March 1998.
- The 911 Cabriolet based on the new model is presented to the public in
March, its roof opening and closing electrohydraulically at the touch of a
button. An aluminium hardtop comes as standard, as do the sidebags on both
Porsche Know-How for the Entire Industry
"We Develop New Products for Customers the World
|"There's a piece of Weissach in nearly every car", say
Porsche's engineers with a touch of pride in their voice. Still, long
before the current Research and Development Centre in Weissach even came
into being, Porsche was already solving development problems for external
customers in the automotive industry.
|When in the Austrian town of Gmünd "Old No 1", the very first
Porsche 356 sports car, entered the world 50 years ago, Ferry Porsche was
already working together with his father's engineers and technicians on
development assignments for industrial clients. It was precisely for this
purpose that Ferdinand Porsche senior had established his engineering
office in Kronenstrasse in Stuttgart back in 1931. Immediately after the
war, however, Porsche's development team made a living on rather
unspectacular jobs, designing ski bindings and winches or machines for
cutting turf into briquettes. However, Porsche also carried out
development assignments for Volkswagen, designing and building an interim
transmission, a dense fuel engine and, finally, even a diesel engine for
the famous Beetle. And from Italy the Company received the order to
develop the famous Cisitalia racing car, creating a design far ahead of
|After the Company returned to Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen activities started
out on a rather low, modest level. To begin with, round about the year
1950, the almost empty Stuttgart-Heilbronn autobahn as well as the roads
around Stuttgart served as a testing area. Benefitting from the rather
sparse traffic back then, Porsche's engineers tried out in practice what
their colleagues in Zuffenhausen had designed and built for the road. But
then traffic started to become denser and denser, extreme driving tests on
public roads presenting increasing problems. While as of 1953 a small
airport nearby served for certain driving tests, the facility was simply
too small and did not offer the right conditions, the runways, for
example, being absolutely flat and not with the usual curvature of the
surface from left to right, like a normal road. So Porsche realised around
1954/55 that the only way to solve the problem in the long run was to
build an in-house, private test area allowing the engineers and drivers to
try out all kinds of situations on the road without the public watching.
And eventually they found exactly the right area between the villages of
Weissach and Flacht in the County of Böblingen. On 29 January 1960
Helmuth Bott, at the time one of Porsche's test engineers, defined the Weissach
Project in a memo full of drawings. Indeed, it was Bott who put his
own personal stamp on all phases of the development in Weissach, testing
cars on the skid pad as a test engineer, supervising operations on the
road circuits as the chief tester, and finally overseeing the process of
his entire crew moving to Weissach in his position as the Company's Chief
Development Engineer. From 1978 to 1988 Professor Helmuth Bott then became
the Board Member for Research and Development of Porsche AG.
|Ferry Porsche breaks the ground
|The initial concept soon developed into a realistic project fully
endorsed by management. So on 16 October 1961 Ferry Porsche broke the
ground on the test track with a bulldozer and exactly one year later the
access roads and skid pad were opened for use by the Company.
|The Development Division responsible for design, construction and
testing was still in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen, but was growing faster than
the production plant as such. With the premises in Zuffenhausen already
fully occupied, the only option for Development was soon to move to
Weissach, too. And indeed, some of the test tracks were not even ready
when, in February 1969, construction of the Development Centre started. In
summer 1971, more than a quarter of a century ago, the Development
Division then began moving from Zuffenhausen to their new address which,
at the time, was the most advanced and modern test centre in the world.
One of the departments that also moved to Weissach was the Emission
Testing Unit with dynamometers and rolling roads in a position even then
to handle speeds of up to 160 km/h or almost 100 mph. And even back then
exhaust emissions went straight from the car to analysis units in the
control room. Endurance and long-distance tests were controlled via punch
cards and pneumatic cylinders by an "automatic driver" pressing
down the accelerator, brake and clutch pedals, and shifting gears,
according to specific, predetermined driving cycles.
|Research to the benefit of the environment
|Three years later, following the test areas, workshops and laboratories,
the office buildings within the Research and Development Centre were also
opened for use by the Company, allowing Porsche to concentrate all
development activities and functions in Weissach within an organisation
complying in full with all the requirements at the time. Even so, the
Company realised even back then that this was only a provisional stage of
|The next significant expansion of the facilities in Weissach was due in
1981, with Porsche's own engineers as well as development customers in the
world automotive industry demanding larger capacities for measuring and
optimising exhaust emissions. The Environmental Protection Measuring
Centre with its own, absolutely self-sufficient test facility and a test
area of 5,500 square metres with brand-new test rigs was therefore opened
in late autumn 1982. Controlled by microprocessors, modern exhaust
emission dynamometers serve here to measure the actual driving resistance
of the vehicle consistently and with lasting precision, thus ensuring
statistically proven, reproducible results in accordance with the US City
and Highway Tests, the European Test, Japanese Test or other test cycles.
A steel climate/pressure chamber allows the engineers and researchers to
carry out exhaust emission and fuel consumption tests as well as many
other development trials under a broad range of climate and altitude
conditions. A particular point worth mentioning here is that the Weissach
Research and Development Centre was the first facility of its kind
authorised by the US authorities to conduct exhaust emission tests with
certificates for US imports.
|It was precisely for this reason, in consideration of the high standard
of exhaust emission research at Porsche's Research and Development Centre,
that Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen and Porsche decided to establish
their joint Exhaust Emission Centre of the Automobile Industry opened in
January 1996 in Weissach.
|Customers have lauded Weissach time and again as the "Mecca of
technical progress". And indeed, the Weissach Research and
Development Centre offers an incomparable range of advanced technology
supported by specialists in virtually all areas, allowing manufacturers
and customers alike to turn their dreams, visions and innovative ideas
|Especially for customer developments and specific production
assignments, Porsche has furthermore established Porsche Engineering
Services (PES) allowing a saving of up to one-third in terms of both
manpower and test facilities and thus ensuring cost benefits the Company
passes on in full to its customers. PES's unique range of services
comprises the systematic development of complete components and modules
such as engines, transmissions, chassis or safety systems and extends all
the way to the production of complete vehicles or even small model series.
Indeed, Porsche is the only company worldwide able to develop complete
vehicles on behalf of the customer and Porsche intends to further
promote such customer-specific production activities through the
development and production of high-tech vehicles for other companies.
Customer development and production will therefore remain a significant
strategic activity with Porsche also in future.
|Porsche Engineering Services, the subsidiary of the same name in the
USA, also renders important services in the market, in particular in the
development of lightweight steel projects such as ULSAB (Ultra-Light Steel
Auto Body). Demand for development services is also increasing
significantly in Asia, particularly in Korea and China. And Porsche is
furthermore able to offer customers the benefits provided by Porsche
Engineering Services GmbH (PES) in the town of Bietigheim-Bissingen near
Stuttgart, a subsidiary established in 1995 in order to expand the
Company's capacity and make working hours more flexible. The main areas
covered by this subsidiary are design and construction services on the
bodyshell and mechanical systems, while Porsche Engineering Services also
sees interesting potentials in future for the development of niche
products on behalf of other automobile manufacturers.
|Excellent quality all round
|In 1994 Porsche became the world's first carmaker to fulfill the
international ISO 9001 quality standard in the area of customer
development. Together with the new DIN standard, this ensures much simpler
procedures in the market, all products requiring homologation now only
having to be checked and verified in their country of production to comply
in full with the requirements of all EU member states.
Highlights of the Company
- The very first Porsche 356/1 developed by Ferry Porsche and his proven
team is completed in the Austrian town of Gmünd and receives technical
homologation on 8 June.
- The Cisitalia racing car is presented at the Torino Motor Show, featuring
a 12-cylinder dual-compressor boxer engine in midship arrangement, 1493 cc,
385 bhp at 10600 rpm, top speed 300 km/h (186 mph), four-wheel drive with
individual drive activation of the front wheels.
- The Porsche 356 scores its first international success in motor racing,
winning the 1100-cc category in the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
- Presentation of the Fuhrmann engine for the Porsche 550 Spyder: 1.5
litre four-cylinder, four camshafts, 110 bhp.
- Commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Company, the 10,000th Porsche
356 leaves the production hall. Porsche has already scored 400 victories in
- The Porsche 911 is presented for the first time at the Frankfurt Motor
- Production start of the Porsche 911.
- Presentation of the 914-4 and 914-6 mid-engined sports cars at the
Frankfurt Motor Show.
- The Porsche 917 (4.5-litre 12-cylinder boxer engine) shown to the public
for the first time in Geneva wins virtually all races the world over,
including the World Championship of Makes and the Endurance World
- Work starts at the Weissach Research and Development Centre.
- Presentation of the 911 Turbo at the Paris Motor Show.
- Porsche introduces the 924, the first Transaxle sports car with the engine
at the front, the transmission and drive wheels at the rear.
- Production of the "big Porsche", the 928, starts in Stuttgart:
V8 light-alloy engine, Transaxle configuration, Weissach axle. To
this day the only sports car in the world ever to win the title of Sports
Car of the Year.
- The Porsche 956, the most successful racing/sports car of all times,
begins its victorious career.
- Launch of the Porsche 959, a spearhead in new technology.
- Launch of the new 911 Carrera 4.
- Introduction of Tiptronic four-speed automatic transmission operated
either manually (as a function of load) or serving as a fully automatic
transmission. Featured for the first time in the new 911 Carrera 2.
- Presentation of the first Boxster concept car at the Detroit Auto Show.
Launch of the new 911 Carrera at the Frankfurt Motor Show.
- The new 911 Turbo with its bi-turbo engine becomes the first production
car in the world with on-board diagnosis II, friction-welded hollow-spoke
wheels and the lowest emission rating of all production cars in the market.
- Production starts of the all-new Porsche Boxster mid-engined roadster
after only 3 1/2 years of
development (counting from the completion of the car's specifications).
Weissach celebrates its 25th anniversary.
- Presentation of the new Porsche 911 with a water-cooled six-cylinder boxer
Half a Century of Porsche Motorsport
|Success at the Supreme Level
|Motorsport and Porsche belong together like water and the sea. Over the
years and decades the world-famous marque from Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen has
been successful in virtually all areas and categories of motorsport,
winning races and bringing home victories on the highest level. No less
than 8 World Championships in Endurance Racing, three World Championships
in Formula 1, 15 wins at Le Mans, as well as record-breaking victories in
the classic Daytona, Sebring and Targa Florio (Italy) races speak for
themselves. In all, Porsche sports cars have scored some 23,000 wins in
motor racing the world over. But the fact remains that the technical
aspects of developing a successful sports/racing car have always been more
important for Porsche's commitment to motorsport than the mere quest for
the winner's laurels.
|On 11 July 1948, when Porsche 356 No 1 was not even five weeks old,
Porsche's nephew Herbert Kaes drove "Old No 1" in the first car
race in Austria after the war, the Innsbruck City Race. And despite the
fact that the car had only 35 bhp developed by its 1131-cc power unit at
4000 rpm, it brought home victory in its class right away.
|Customer sport an old Porsche tradition
|Ever since customer sport the sale of potential race winners to
private teams and drivers has been one of Porsche's great traditions.
In the two years to follow, for example, Porsche drivers remained equally
successful, Austrian driver Otto Mathé bringing home a class win in the
International Alpine Rally in 1950. Naturally, another class win scored by
French drivers Veullet and Mouche in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1951 hit
the headlines even more, the two drivers at the wheel of a 635-kg coupé
built in Gmünd and powered by a 1.1-litre engine developing 46 bhp thanks
to its new camshaft covering 2,842.65 km (1,762.44 miles) at an overall
average speed of 118.4 km/h (73.41 mph), with remarkable lap speeds of up
to 140 km/h or 87 mph. A David among many Goliaths, the small Porsche
finished a remarkable 20th in the overall rating.
|Porsche drivers have really been at home in Le Mans ever since
perhaps more than on any other race track the world over. Following many
additional class wins with small cars at the time, Porsche's first overall
win in Le Mans came in 1970, Hans Herrmann and Dick Attwood bringing home
the title in a 4.5-litre 917 K. And in the meantime no other manufacturer
has won this endurance race now the oldest in the world as often
as Porsche: no less than 15 times up to 1997, with 7 wins in a row from
1981 to 1987.
|In the '50s and to a large extent also in the '60s Porsche entered races
with cars displacing less than two litres, scoring class wins virtually
everywhere. But as early as in 1956 Umberto Maglioli driving a 550 A
Spyder scored Porsche's first overall win against seemingly almighty
competitors in the famous Targa Florio in Sicily. And in the
Liege-Rome-Liege road marathon Claude Storez and Robert Buchet achieved
the same success in 1957 at the wheel of a Porsche 356 Carrera Speedster.
|From a class to an overall winner
|Driving a Porsche 718 RSK, Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips won the
European Hill-Climb Championship in 1958, Döry/Mieres then bringing home
Porsche's first overall win in Daytona in 1959 at the wheel of a Porsche
RS 1500. In 1962, in turn, Dan Gurney won the French Grand Prix in Rouen,
clinching Porsche's first Formula 1 victory at the wheel of a Porsche 804
developing 180 bhp from its 1.5-litre flat-8 power unit. Two years later
in 1964 one of the most beautiful racing/sports cars ever built by
Porsche, the 904 Carrera GTS designed by Ferdinand Alexander ("Butzi")
Porsche, scored the Company's sixth overall win in the Targa Florio.
|One of Porsche's particular strongholds has always been motor racing
with prototypes and sports cars clearly related, also in the their looks,
to their production counterparts. Many successful Porsche racing/sports
cars such as the 906 and 907 (three times the winner in Daytona), the 908
(the winner of the first World Championship of Makes in 1969), the 910,
917, 935, 936, 956 and 962 thus remain unforgotten, having brought home
great victories the world over both with the works team and in the hands
of professional private teams, just like the 911 GT1 today. Indeed, the
names alone of the great racing drivers winning major events with these
cars would fill many lines and even pages.
|Another Porche stronghold for many years was rally racing, where the 911
was raced for the first time in the 1965 Monte Carlo Rally with Herbert
Linge and Peter Falk at the wheel, finishing fifth overall behind Eugen Böhringer
and Rolf Wütherich in a 904 Carrera GTS. In 1968 Vic Elford and David
Stone driving a Porsche 911 T scored Porsche's first overall win in the
Monte, further overall wins in this classic event following in 1969, 1970
and 1978 all with various versions of the Porsche 911.
|Porsche the endurance specialist
|In the course of time Porsche's list of overall wins became longer and
longer. In the 1968 24 Hours of Daytona, for example, Porsche celebrated a
glorious 1-2-3 victory, Hans Herrmann and Jo Siffert won the 12 Hours of
Sebring with Vic Elford and Jochen Neerpasch finishing second, and Gerhard
Mitter clinched the European Hill-Climb Championship for the third time in
a row winning 8 out of 8 races. In 1970, in turn, it was once again
Hans Herrmann and Dick Attwood who scored Porsche's overall victory in the
24 Hours of Le Mans at the wheel of a 4.5-litre 917 K. Just one year later
Helmut Marko and Gijs van Lennep followed their example, this time driving
a 4.9-litre 917 K.
|In 1972 George Follmer brought home the US CanAm Championship at the
wheel of a 917/1C Turbo, Mark Donohue following in his footsteps in 1973
in a Porsche 917/30, at the time the most powerful racing car ever built
with maximum output of 1100 bhp which is perhaps why Mark scored six
overall wins in a row and finished once as the runner-up. It was also in
1973 that the classic Targa Florio was held for the last time on the
Madonie course in Sicily, Herbert Müller and Gijs van Lennep scoring yet
another triumph at the wheel of a 911 Carrera RSR.
|The newly developed 911 RS 2.1 Turbo (1974), the 935 and the 936
dominated the endurance racing scene in 1975, once again bringing home the
World Championship of Makes and Sports Cars for Porsche. And to round off
this outstanding success, Jacky Ickx and Gijs van Lennep scored an overall
victory in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. A couple of years later, in the 50th
24 Hours of Le Mans in 1981, Porsche itself was back for the 31st time,
Jacky Ickx and Derk Bell once again clinching victory in a 936 and marking
the beginning of an almost unbelievable series: Porsche was the winner of
the 24 Hours of Le Mans from 1981 to 1987, the Company thus bringing home
7 outstanding victories in a row.
|A winner also in Formula 1
|While all this was happening, Porsche's racing engineers in Weissach
were busily developing the 1.5-litre turbocharged V6 Formula 1 power unit
for the TAG Group. Powered by this impressive engine, the McLaren TAG
Porsche then won the Formula 1 World Championship in 1984, its first full
season, with Niki Lauda at the wheel, Alain Prost subsequently taking over
and bringing home the title in 1985 and 1986.
|Driving the famous 959 spearhead in technological development launched
by Porsche in 1985 and sold at a price of DM 420,000.- in a production run
of only 292 units, René Metge and his co-driver Dominique Lernoyne won
the ultra-tough Paris-Dakar Rally in 1986, repeating the victory they had
already scored in 1984 in a 911 SC Carrera 4x4. The 962 prototype soon to
become the most successful racing/sports car of all times spent all these
years bringing home one victory after the other, while Porsche was
establishing new options in popular sport with the 944 Turbo Cup initiated
in 1986. Indeed, this was the first racing series in which all cars were
equipped with a catalytic converter. In 1990 it was followed by the
Porsche Carrera Cup supplemented in 1993 by the Porsche Pirelli Supercup
held in conjunction with Formula 1 races.
|Customer sport then continued to dominate the Porsche racing scene in
the years to come, while at the same time the Company was working hard on
the successful introduction of GT racing, developing a new generation of
racing/sports cars spearheaded by the 911 GT1. The result was yet another
win in Le Mans in 1994 with the works team bringing home the laurels,
Porsche triumphs No 14 and 15 following in 1996 and 1997. So the bottom
line, quite simply, is that no other marque has won the 24 Hours of Le
Mans as often as Porsche.
Major Wins and Championships
- World Championship of Makes, World Championship of Teams 14
- Endurance World Championship, Drivers' Rating 8
- MSA Supercar Series 3
- German Motor Racing Championship 6
- European Hill-Climb Championship 20
- Formula 1 World Championship (Drivers) 3 (McLaren with the Porsche engine
designed and built for TAG)
- Formula 1 wins 25 (McLaren with the Porsche engine designed and built for
- Formula 1 wins 26 (Together with the race won in Rouen, 1962)
- Daytona (24 Hours) 18
- MSA Supercar Races (USA) 15
- Le Mans (24 Hours) 15
- Sebring (12 Hours) 17
- Targa Florio 11
- Monte Carlo Rally 4
- Paris-Dakar Rally 2
|Managing Directors and Chairmen of the Board of
Porsche 1948 - 1998
|Prof.Dr.-Ing.h.c.Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche
|1948-1972 Managing Director and Chairman of the Board of Porsche KG
|From September 1971 Technical Director of Porsche KG
|From 1 March 1972 Management Spokesman; Technical Director of Porsche KG
|From August 1972 Board Spokesman of Porsche AG
|6 November 1976 31 December 1980 Chairman of the Board of Porsche AG
|Peter W. Schutz
|1 January 1981 31 December 1987 Chairman of the Board of Porsche AG
|1 January 1988 9 March 1990 Chairman of the Board of Porsche AG
|1 January 1990, joined the Board of Porsche AG
|9 March 1990 30 September 1992 Chairman of the Board of Porsche AG
|Dr.-Ing. Wendelin Wiedeking
|1 October 1992 31 July 1993 Board Spokesman of Porsche AG and until
30 September 1993 Board Member for Production and Materials
|From 1 August 1993 Chairman of the Board of Porsche AG
|From 1 September 1993 31 January 1994 Provisional Board Member for
|Chairmen of the Supervisory Board of Porsche
|Prof.Dr.Ing.h.c. Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche
|1 August 1973 9 March 1990 Chairman of the Supervisory Board
|9 March 1990 27 March 1998 Honorary Chairman of the Supervisory
|Ferdinand Alexander Porsche
|9 March 1990 5 March 1993 Chairman of the Supervisory Board
|Prof. Dr. Helmut Sihler
|From 5 March 1993 Chairman of the Supervisory Board
An Overview of the Company
|Today Porsche has two model series the 911 Carrera and the Boxster
both with a great potential for the future and further expansion. This
spring the Carrera coupé was joined by a cabriolet, and further versions
of the new 911 extending all the way to a new Turbo will follow.
Similarly, there are also plans for further versions of the Boxster. While
the 911 and the Boxster are naturally typical Porsche sports cars in every
respect, they are so different in character that they appeal to and
successfully reach entirely different target groups.
|Production in the 1996/97 business year amounted to 32,390 cars, half of
them 911s, the other half Boxsters. This marks a new record for the
Zuffenhausen Plant, following the former production peak of 22,955 units
in the 1989/90 business year at the time with 4,658 direct and
indirect employees in production. By comparison, Porsche required only
3,563 employees in production to build 32,390 units last year. In relative
terms, this means that while in 1989/90 one Porsche employee built 4.9
cars, the ratio in 1996/97 was 1:9.1 cars. Certainly a big improvement in
|In response to great demand, the Boxster has also been manufactured
since September 1997 in Finland in addition to the production line working
at full capacity in Zuffenhausen. With at least 5,000 Boxsters to be
assembled in Uusikaupunki, total production in the current 1997/98
business year is to be increased to more than 38,000 units.
|Sales and distribution
|Porsche sports cars are now sold by 85 dealers in Germany and 64
importers in another 71 countries. In the major volume markets
Germany, the USA, Japan, Great Britain, Italy, Australia, and Spain
Porsche now controls sales, imports and the wholesale function through its
own subsidiaries and is therefore able to respond more quickly and
flexibly to any changes in the market.
|On account of the significant expansion of business, the number of
employees increased once again in the 1996/97 business year after
decreasing for a number of years in the past. By the end of July 1997
Porsche employed 7,959 associates versus 7,107 one year before. Two
factors were crucial to this increase: First, full consolidation of the
sales companies in the USA and Spain; second, the employment of more than
500 production workers with limited-term employment contracts. The reason
for such limited-term employment, incidentally, lies in the fact that
Porsche sees a further margin also in future for increasing the
productivity of the plant in Zuffenhausen.
|Having successfully completed a turnaround in business, Porsche's profit
situation has improved significantly and with lasting effect. The profit
of DM 139.4 million generated in the 1996/97 year of business represents a
pre-tax return on revenue of 4 per cent a figure which puts Porsche
right at the top among carmakers in Germany.
|The tremendous rise in value of Porsche shares at the stock exchange in
the last 1 1/2 years has hit
the headlines time and again: The price of Porsche preferred stock has
increased from DM 825.- at the beginning of the 1996/97 year of business
to DM 2,950.- by the end of July 1997 and, at least temporarily, to more
than DM 5,000.- in the current year of business. This puts Porsche stock
in the top performance group on the German stock exchange.
|Having established two series of sports cars successfully in the world
market, Porsche has created the foundation for stable continuation of its
core business also in future. Product innovations and model variants are
now to broaden this foundation in the market. With the planned increase in
sales to more than 38,000 units in the current year of business and the
continuous improvement of all corporate processes, the Company has set the
stage for the further improvement of results.
Porsche Sports Car Innovations and Remarkable Porsche
- The very first Porsche the 356 series No 1 already features an
aluminium bodyshell, an aluminium crankcase and cylinder heads.
- Porsche builds a tractor with a two-cylinder aluminium engine (Type AP
- Porsche introduces ring synchromesh technology and registers more than 100
patents. By 1968 more than one million transmissions based on this Porsche
technology were built each year the world over.
- Chrome-plated aluminium cylinders in the 1.3-litre 356 power unit.
Advantage: wear-free cylinder liners with good lubrication.
- Porsche synchronmesh in all Grand Prix racing cars.
- 1.6-litre (Type 678) aeroengine.
- First German car with a curved laminated glass windscreen: the Porsche 356
Speedster. Introduction of the vertical shaft (the Type 547 Fuhrmann
engine), a four-cylinder boxer displacing 1.5 litres and developing 100
bhp at 6200 rpm.
- 550 A Spyder, first overall win in the Targa Florio.
- Porsche 356 B optionally available with three-point seat belts and
backrest arrest mechanism.
- Formula 1 Type 804: 1.5-litre 8-cylinder power unit, titanium connecting
rods, gas-pressure shock absorbers, inner-action disc brakes.
- First Grand Prix win.
- Carrera 2 with inner-action disc brakes.
- Porsche 904 with streamlined plastic bodyshell, drag coefficient 0.33.
- 911 Targa safety cabriolet.
- First drop safety test in Zuffenhausen with the Porsche 904.
- First emission test rig in Europe approved by the US Environmental
Protection Agency for the California emission test.
- Porsche 906 racing car with front and rear spoilers.
- Porsche 911 S 2.0, world's first production car with inner-vented brake
- Fuel injection and high-tension ignition introduced as standard features.
- Porsche 907 scores the Company's first overall win in the 24 Hours of
- 909 hill-climb spyder: 430 kg, 275 bhp, suspension springs and fuel tank
made of titanium, adjustable rear spoiler and berylium brake discs.
- 910 spyder wins the European Hill-Climb Championship.
- 911 T wins Porsche's first World Rally Championship and first overall win
in the Monte Carlo Rally.
- ABS tests in a 908/02 racing car.
- 908 and 917 racing cars win Porsche's first Sports Car World Championship.
- 914-6 fitted as standard with magnesium rims.
- 917 K 4.5-litre scores Porsche's first overall win in Le Mans.
- Introduction of perforated brake discs in the 908/3.
- 917 racing car with magnesium spaceframe and adjustable anti-roll bar.
- First acceleration sledge in Weissach.
- Hot-galvanised floor panels.
- Rollover and side-impact tests with the Porsche 911.
- Overall CanAm win with the Porsche 917-10 (12-cylinder turbocharged
engine, 1000 bhp), the most powerful racing car to date.
- 911 Carrera RS first production car with front and rear spoiler (launch).
- Long-life car research project presented at the Frankfurt Motor Show.
- First crash facility with preliminary tests in Weissach.
- Inertia-reel three-point seat belts fitted as standard.
- World's first production sports car with exhaust gas turbocharger:
- Porsche 911 Turbo with contact-free ignition.
- Porsche becomes the world's first carmaker to introduce the hot-galvanised
bodyshell as standard.
- Start of 924 production, overall production volume of the four-cylinder
model series 325,231 units (924, 944, 968).
- Two World Championships (Group 5 and Group 6) with the 935 and 936 racing
- Start of production of the Porsche 928 with soft front and rear ends,
Weissach axle, light-alloy V8 power unit, Transaxle configuration, defect
display, 1978 Car of the Year, total production of the 8-cylinder model
series 61,000 units.
- Brake system with four-piston brake callipers and perforated brake discs
standard on the 911 Turbo.
- Development of an all-new cockpit layout for the Airbus.
- Fenders made of glass-fibre-reinforced polyurethane standard on the 924
- Tyre pressure control system in the Porsche 924 GTP Le Mans.
- Start of 944 production featuring electronic fuel injection (Motronic),
first heated oxygen sensor worldwide.
- SAVE ambulance (Swift Ambulance Vital Emergency).
- Porsche aeroengine. Advantages: economy, single-stick operation, low noise
level and minimum burden on the environment. Reliability of engine
demonstrated by round-the-world flight to 55 countries, covering a total
distance of more than 100,000 km.
- TAG turbo engine made by Porsche (assignment by the TAG Group) for Formula
1: 1.5-litre V6 turbocharged power unit, winner of the 1984, 1985 and 1986
Formula 1 World Championships.
- Development of the double-clutch transmission raced in 1985 in the Group C
956 racing car, underfloor with ground effect, fully electronic engine
management (Motronic), Denloc safety racing tyres, hollow-spoke rims with
tyre pressure control system and six-cylinder horizontally-opposed
turbocharged engine, combined air/ water cooling introduced later, cylinder
head and cylinders welded to one another, winner of the World Endurance
Championship (Group C).
- Start of 959 development with program-controlled four-wheel drive, damper
control and self-levelling, plastic skin, turbocharged engine with
register-type turbochargers and intercooler, titanium connecting rods,
- Offset crash tests with 50 per cent offset angle.
- Heated oxygen sensor in all Porsche models worldwide.
- All Porsche cars fitted as standard with activated carbon filter.
- Manually controlled four-wheel drive in the Porsche 953 (based on the
911), first overall win in the Paris-Dakar Rally.
- Door reinforcement worldwide.
- Sekuriflex windscreen.
- Four-valve technology standard on the 928 S with catalytic converter.
- Marine engine for racing boats, 8-cylinder bi-turbo engine (based on the
928), max output 700 bhp plus.
- Ceramic portliners in the 944 Turbo.
- ABS standard in the Porsche 928 S.
- Porsche 944 Turbo first European car fitted as standard with driver and
front passenger airbags for the USA.
- Second crash test facility in Weissach.
- Opening of the Weissach wind tunnel with slotted walls and boundary layer
- First racing series with catalyst cars: 944 Turbo Cup.
- 911 Carrera with noise encapsulation in Switzerland and Australia.
- Catalytic converter standard in all model series (except 911 Turbo).
- Carrera 4 with four-wheel drive, metal-based catalytic converter,
retractable rear spoiler, recyclable front and rear bumpers, engine with
double ignition, aerodynamically optimised underfloor, electrothermal sensor
for fuel level indicator.
- 928 S4 with TPC (Tyre Pressure Control) and PLSD (Porsche Limited Slip
- 911 Carrera 2 with Tiptronic.
- Driver and front passenger airbags standard in all US models.
- All Porsche cars with asbestos-free brake pads, clutch linings and seals.
- 911 engine with plastic intake manifold.
- Porsche becomes first German manufacturer to fit all left-hand-drive
models with driver and front passenger airbags as standard.
- Engine of the 968 with Variocam camshaft adjustment (electrohydraulic),
bypass intake manifold and brake system with optimised cooling air flow.
- High-torque three-litre normal-aspiration engine in production cars.
- 928 GTS with two-stage resonance-type intake manifold.
- Gradual changeover to water-soluble metallic paint.
- Porsche cars largely free of cadmium.
- System detecting frictional engagement of road and tyres developed as part
of the European PROMETHEUS research programme.
- Porsche cars largely CFC-free (foam plastics, air conditioning).
- Multi-link rear axle in lightweight construction with subframe in 911
- Tiptronic S double-function transmission with driver-adaptive control,
gears shifted from steering wheel.
- Driver-dynamic four-wheel-drive system consisting of four-wheel drive,
automatic brake differential and driving-dynamic limited-slip differential
in 911 Carrera 4.
- Porsche becomes the first manufacturer to introduce water-based paint for
- Automatic cruise and distance control system developed as part of the
European PROMETHEUS research programme.
- 911 Turbo with bi-turbo engine, first car worldwide fitted as standard
with on-board diagnosis II, hollow-welded 18-inch hollow-spoke wheels (a
Porsche patent), lightweight spoiler cover in advanced RTM technology.
- New Targa roof concept with electrically operated, extra-large glass roof.
- 911 Carrera with Variocam system (combined with a two-stage resonance
- Introduction of the mid-engined Boxster with electrically operated soft
roof open/closing in 12 seconds and the largest luggage compartment of all
roadsters in the market. High standard of safety.
- Presentation and production start of the all-new 911 Carrera with
water-cooled six-cylinder boxer engine at the rear. Consistent lightweight
- Presentation of the 911 Cabriolet, side bags with 30 litres volume on each
side fitted as standard. One of the safest convertibles in the world.